Participants and Abstracts

Muhammad Al Arnaout

Bio
Professor Muhammad Al Arnaout is a Professor of Islamic Civilization at World Islamic Science & Education University in Amman, Jordan. Al Arnaout’s interest in researching waqf is tracked back to the 1970s during his work with Prishtina University in former Yugoslavia. The accumulative knowledge of the pioneer researchers in Bosnia during the first half of the twentieth century played a great role in encouraging research and publications in Waqf. In 1989, he started work in Yarmouk University and contributed the following researches: Significance of Waqf documents as a source of economic and social history, Emerge of “cash waqf” in the 15th century, women in waqf, and the role waqf played in Islamic societies.

Title
From Sarajevo to Doha: Women's Waqf between the past and the present​

Murat Cizakca

Bio
Murat Cizakca is a Professor of Islamic finance at Karatay University in Konya, Turkey. He has a Ph.D in Economics from Pennsylvania (1978). He served as Professor of economics in Islamic Finance since 1975 in Bahcesehir University in Turkey, Munich University in Germany, INCEIF University in Malysia and Luxembourg School of Finance in Luxembourg. Cizakca has published the following books among others; A History of Philanthropic Foundations: The Islamic World From the Seventh Century to the Present (Istanbul: Bogazici University Press, 2000), Islamic Capitalism and Finance: Origins, Evolution and the Future (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2011) and A Comparative Evolution of Business Partnerships: Islamic World and the West, with Specific Reference to the Ottoman Archives, (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1996).

Title
From Destruction to Restoration - Islamic Waqfs in Malaysia and Turkey.

Abstract
Separated by about ten thousand miles, Turkey and Malaysia experienced a process of deliberate destruction of their waqf systems throughout the 19th and 20th centuries and they are both trying to restore them in the 21st. While the Malaysian system was destroyed by the British shortly before the independence, it was the indigenous modernists who inflicted the greatest harm on the Turkish system in the 1930s. Democratic forces in Turkey eventually paved the way for the 1967 waqf law, a radical improvement. Any attempt in Malaysia to improve the system continues to be seriously impeded by domestic politics. Learning from the experiences of these countries is important for all Muslims.

Randi Deguilhem

Bio
Randi Deguilhem is professor with the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research) TELEMME UMR 7303-MMSH, Aix-Marseille University (AMU). From her doctoral studies at NYU supported by a Fulbright-Hays to research in the Syrian archives until the present, she specializes on socio-economic and juridical-political questions related to Sunni Islamic waqf endowments, including gender analysis of these questions. In addition to comparative research on waqf elsewhere in Islamic societies (including Shi'a waqf), most of her empirical and qualitative research on waqf focuses on the endowments in Damascus and greater Syria, spanning the Ottoman era, the French-Mandate period and waqf in current-day Syria. She has organized and directed a doctoral seminar from 2010-16 on waqf foundations at the EHESS (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales), Paris and from 2012-16, has directed the CNRS International Research Network (GDRI) on waqf endowments which has 9 international partners. She has supervised over 20 PhDs at AMU, many of them on waqf (Islamic but also Christian), and has published widely on waqf endowments in the Islamic world.

Title
Transformation in the Social Value of Waqf Endowments: From An Individual Decision Making Tool to State and Transnational Control

Abstract
A powerful and empowering instrument used by individuals, women and men, as an interventionist tool on different levels in Islamic societies, waqf endowments are central to the organization of those societies (waqf was also widespread in non Muslim communities in Islamic lands). In many ways, and as will be discussed during the presentation, the endowment reveals the social value of the endower’s network as seen in the internal organization of her/his waqf from the choice of beneficiaries (identifiying the waqf as khayrî, dhurrî-ahlî or mushtarak) of the foundation’s revenues to the choice of properties that the endower puts into her/his waqf to the choice of administrator who manages the waqf. These three aspects of waqf – choice of beneficiaries, endowed properties and administrator – are projected into the future after the endower’s demise by precise instructions given in the waqf charter foundation, the waqfiyya also called the kitâb al-waqf. The waqf as a decision-making tool on the part of the endower has wide and strong influence within the endower’s immediate societal environment as well as on a larger scale.

In terms of the transformation of the social and societal value of the waqf endowments, each one of which is governed by its own charter’s clauses as well as by the frameworks enunciated by religious jurisprudence (fiqh) relative to the functioning of waqf in society but also by state decree (qânûn) already from the Ummayad era up to the present (within the framework of Islamic finance) and customary law (‘urf). Each of these three legal frameworks, in addition to transnational Islamic finance as especially articulated within the last two decades, differ from region to region and from madhhab to madhhab including those within the Shi‘a, Ibadi and other Islamic communities.
In relation to the above, my presentation will reflect upon the different periodizations in  the transformation of the social value of waqf in relation to the ever-present dual dynamic, vis-à-vis the waqf endowment, namely, on one hand, as an individual decision-making tool whereby an endower institutionalizes and sets into motion her/her network, i.e. « endower – revenue generating property – beneficiary – waqf administrator » which functions as an autonomous unit within the controls articulated by the framework of religious, state and customary laws and, on the other hand, as a resource-rich source of assets upon which the state (in terms of dawla) exerts political control, thereby transforming its social value.

Ibrahim Ghanem

Bio

Professor Ibrahim Ghanem is a professor of political science and a counselor at the National Center for Social and Criminal Research in Egypt. He is also a member of the high consultation committee at Alexandria Bibliotheca and a member of the Experts’ Board in the General Islamic Law Research Center. Previously, Professor Ghanem taught at Zayed Univeristy in UAE and workd as an Academic consultant to the United Nationd Development Program at the Gulf Countries Council. He has numerous researched and studies as well as books on political systems, freedom and political consensus, waqf, civil society, political culture and Islamic law. 

Title:
Waqf between Civil Society Flexibility and State Centralized Systems.

Munzir Kahf

Bio
Monzer Kahf is currently professor of Islamic Finance and Islamic Economics, Faculty of Islamic Studies, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha Qatar. He taught at the graduate program of Islamic economics and banking, School of Shari’ah, Yarmouk University, Jordan, 2004-2005.He served as a senior research economist at the Islamic Research and Training Institute (IRTI) of the IDB Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 1995–1999 and was a visiting professor at the graduate program of Islamic finance, the International Center for Education of Islamic Finance, INCEIF, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, summer 2010. He has 35 books, more than 80 published articles and scores of conference and encyclopedia entries on Islamic finance and banking, Awqaf, Zakah and other areas of Islamic economics.  He provides consultations and advises to Islamic Banks and Fatawa on line in the area of Islamic finance and economics. He was awarded the IDB Prize for Islamic Economics, 2001 and the President of Syria Award for best University Graduating Student, July 1962.

Title
Waqf as a Pillar in Constructing Non-Profit Organizations

Abstract
The recent interest in Awqaf represents a reversal of a trend of neglect and even attacks that continued for almost a century in most Muslim countries. The new interest in Waqf is also one facet of Islamic revival in Muslim countries and communities. Rediscovering Awqaf and attempting to enhance their role in social welfare is founded on the idea that Awqaf can provide infrastructure for the third non-for-profit sector and allow it to undertake tasks in social welfare after failure of both governments and private sector in dealing with issues that requires variant degrees of altruism. This is what my presentation attempt to show.

Tillmann Lohse

Bio
Dr. Tillmann Lohse, born 1975, received his PhD in Medieval History from Humboldt University Berlin in 2011. Since 2012 he is a major contributor to the “Enzyklopädie des Stiftungswesens in mittelalterlichen Gesellschaften” (Encyclopedia of Religious Foundations in Medieval Societies), funded by the European Research Council and published by DeGruyter (Berlin/Boston) 2014

Title
Vicarious Charity and Common Good. Infrastructural Foundations in the Medieval West

Abstract
Unlike their Muslim counterparts the legal scholars of Western Christendom did not develop a clear concept of “foundation” during the Middle Ages. Accordingly such pious perpetuities appear under many names in source material written in Latin or vernacular languages. Medievalists therefor tend to identify “foundations” not by their medieval designations, but with respect to a universal ‘ideal type’ of foundation developed in interdisciplinary discourse. In the premodern Occident such institutions were based on various assets (land, buildings, and money), operated by different organizations (monasteries, hospitals, trusties) and dedicated to manifold objectives (commemoration, divine service, charity, education). The talk will give an introduction to the history of the hitherto hardly known infrastructural foundations of Latin Christians established for public benefit especially in Late Medieval times.

Thomas Michel

Bio
Fr. Thomas Michel received a doctorate in Islamic thought at the University of Chicago with a doctoral thesis entitled “Ibn Taymiyya's Al-Jawab al-Sahih: A Muslim Theologian's Critique of Christianity.” After teaching at Columbia University in New York, he taught at Sanata Dharma University in Indonesia.
In 1981-1994, Fr. Michel worked in the Vatican as Head of the Office for Relations with Muslims. During this time he taught Christian theology in universities in Turkey and at the Gregorian University in Rome. In 1994-2008, Fr. Michel served as Secretary for Interreligious Affairs for the Catholic bishops of Asia and as Secretary for Interreligious Dialogue in Rome.
In 2000 he delivered the D’Arcy Lectures at Oxford University on themes of Muslim-Christian relations. In 2008, he received the International Tschelebi Peace Prize from the Central Islamic Institute of Germany, and in 2009 the Ali Shir Navai Award from the International Turkish Olympiad in Ankara, Turkey. In 2010, he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Theology by the Catholic Theological Union of Chicago, Illinois.  In 2013, he received the Building Bridges of Understanding Award from Alwaleed Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding of Georgetown University.
Fr. Michel is on the International Advisory Board of the Khalidi Library, Jerusalem and the Editorial Board of the journal Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations in Birmingham, UK; He is on the International Advisory Panel of the International Movement for a Just World in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and the Advisory Board of the Centre for Civilizational Dialogue at the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. He taught religious studies at the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Doha, Qatar from 2013 - 2016, and is currently teaching at the Institute for Arabic and Islamic Studies in Rome, Italy.

Title
Madrasa, University, and College: Educational Foundations in the Muslim World and Europe

Abstract
This paper will compare and contrast the institutions of madrasa in the Islamic tradition with those of university and college in Christian European history.  The paper will look at the characteristics of the madrasa and the waqf prescriptions on which the madrasa is founded.  Next it will examine the very different basis on which the European university originated, and make the case that the European college is the more direct descendent in Europe of the Islamic madrasa.  Finally, it will turn to the intellectual influence of madrasa scholarship on European universities, emphasizing the 13th century translation movement and the introduction of Aristotelian philosophy into Europe through the commentaries of Ibn Rushd.

Toru Miura

Bio

Professor of Comparative History at Ochanomizu University in Tokyo, Japan and Head of the West Asian Studies Department at the Toyo Bunko (Oriental Library). Main works: Dynamism in the Urban Society of Damascus: The Sāliḥiyya Quarter from the Twelfth to the Twentieth Centuries, Leiden, 2016, Islamic Urban Studies: Historical Review and Perspectives, London: Keagan Paul, 1994 (co-editor). Professor Miura was also co-editor of The Vellum Contract Documents in Morocco in the Sixteenth to Nineteenth Centuries, Tokyo, 2015

Title
Transregional Comparison of the Waqf in the Premodern times: Japan, China and Syria

Abstract
Donation of properties have been prevalent in any region in human history, but the redistribution of properties and wealth has been so far overlooked in both historical studies and economics. Fundamental question is why one does a paradoxical act of donation to give one’s own gained property to a third party? As a result of five-year international joint-study of the waqf by the Toyo Bunko and the CNRS International Research Program (GDRI), we come to a redefinition of the waqf for comparative study: Irrevocable property donation to distribute the profit to the donor’s family or other beneficiaries as well as for a charitable/philanthropic purpose, by creating a management body independent of the donor and the state. 
I would present a model of comparison by discussing the religious donation in five regions: West Europe, the Byzantine Empire, the Islamic Middle East (Syria), China and Japan in pre-modern times. The religious organizations (churches and monasteries) formed political and economic entities independent from the feudal state by managing the donated properties in medieval Europe. The waqf donation in Islamic Middle East was basically personal act as an individual donated his/her private properties for the religious institute or the charitable purpose as well as for donor’s relatives. The superintendents appointed by the donor or the government managed the properties according to the waqf deed regulations. The state could not interfere in the management other than registering the donation at the sharia court and appointing the administrative staff of the institutes.
In pre-modern China, there were three kinds of donation and management for immovable property; for family lineages, religious institutions, and philanthropic activities. They worked as a trust for family lineages and religious-social institutions. Medieval Japanese society was characterized by many kinds of land donation (called kishin) among local notables, military lords, court nobles, religious institutions, the Shogun (military ruler) and the Emperor. The properties donated for the religious authorities (Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines) were set outside the state control. Wealthy and leading persons willingly donated their properties for the religious authorities and organized intermediate corporations to redistribute the revenue from the donated properties to the local society. There were created nexus of reciprocal relations among the lords, the local leaders including religious persons and local people. The notion of reciprocity of donation worked as a tie between this world and the next, Buddhist society and secular society, and the donor and donee. This created a kind of publicness that influenced people’s actions and relationships in medieval society.

Yehia Mohammed

Bio
Yehia A. Mohamed is an Assistant Professor of Arabic at Georgetown Qatar. He received a Ph.D. in 2008 in Arabic Phonology and Phonetics at Cairo University, and an M.A. and B.A. in Semitic Linguistics. He previously served as a lecturer in Arabic programs at Georgetown University’s Main Campus, the Middle East Institute, Johns Hopkins University, the University of Maryland, and George Washington University.  Dr. Mohamed’s research agenda focus on Arabic Language acquisition, Arabic phonology, and discourse analysis.

Title
Tracing Waqf: A Linguistic Approach

Abstract
This study aims to trace the linguistic aspects of the Waqf in the Arabic language over time. Starting with the linguistic origin of the word, its derivatives and the history of its use in Arabic, the talk will examine evolution of the semantic and lexical uses through the ages, dynasties, geographical regions and schools of Fiqh. The study also analyzes the terms and concepts associated with the fields and types of Waqf.

Mohammed Nokkari

Bio

Mohamed Mahmoud Nokari is a Sharia court judge and a Professor Lecturer at Faculty of Law in both Saint Joseph’s University and Notre Dame University–Louaize in Beirut. He is also a Professor Lecturer at the Faculty of Religious Studies and the Institute of Islamic -Cristian Studies at Saint Joseph’s University. He received a PhD in Law from University of Poitiers in France and a D.E.A (Diploma of Profound Studies) in General Law and another degree in Political Science from University of Paris (Paris 2). While his Bachelor was in Sharia and Islamic Law from Al-Azhar University in Cairo.
He worked previously as the general director of Dar al-Fatwa and the private secretary of the Mufti of the Republic of Lebanon. He was the secretary of the supreme council of  Sharia Court and the Muftis Council. He served also as a member of the scientific committee in the board of directors of Beirut Awqaf. He lectured and published in many topics related to Islamic Sharia, comparative studies and Islamic – Cristian relations. He had received number of awards for his efforts on these topics.

Title
Responsibility of the Supreme Religious Authority in Front of Legal Jurisdiction.

Mahmoud Zaki

Bio
Mahmoud Zaki is a research Fellow at GU-Q. He received his Master’s degree in Manuscript Studies from the Institute of Arabic Research and Studies in Cairo and another MA in Library and Information studies from University College London. He also holds a Postgraduate Diploma in Library, Archival and information Studies from Cairo University. In addition, he attended courses at both London Rare Books and Paleography Schools, University of London. He is now finalizing his PhD in Codicology and Islamic History, on the topic of Waqf of libraries and book in the Islamic Civilization, throw Waqf Notes on manuscripts and Waqf Documents. Before Georgetown he worked at the Institute of Arabic Manuscripts (ALECSO, Arab League) and the National Library and Archives of Egypt. He also had internships at the British Library and the Bodleian. He delivered and organized academic courses, lectures and papers at international and regional institutes including: UCL Qatar, MIA, FANAR, Arab League, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, National Library of Morocco, Manuscripts Center (Algeria), Al-Furqan Foundation (London), Cambridge University and CISC (Madrid). From his publications: Early Arabic Bookmaking Techniques and the Arabic edition of “The Arabic Manuscript Tradition” (the bibliography).

Title
Historical Sources of Waqf and Analysis of its Documents

Abstract
This presentation is exploring the historical sources dealing with the subject of Waqf. It aims to provide a preliminary map of the major categories of these sources and texts needed for research accompanied with examples. The sources are texts of special sections and chapters on the topic or scattered marginal information, within a wide range of categories including: ‘Fiqh’, ‘Fatwa’, ‘Nawazil’, ‘Ahkam’, and ‘Wath’ik’ (Documents), in addition to general history and biography. While there are special treatises fully on Waqf, as well as Waqf documents which is the major source including Waqf notes/statements on manuscripts. Finally, the presentation briefly highlights the document of Waqf and its major components, types and terminology. 

Ramadan El Khouly

Title
Women as Nazira of Waqf